General orthopaedics is a specific type of surgery that is generally focused on various conditions that involve the body's musculoskeletal system. Orthopaedic doctors use both surgical and nonsurgical techniques to help treat not only musculoskeletal trauma, but also certain types of spine diseases, degenerative diseases, infections, congenital disorders and even tumors depending on the specifics of the situation they find themselves in.
Foot and Ankle
Foot and Ankle physicians specialize in the medical and surgical treatment of foot and ankle conditions, such as: Heel Pain/Plantar Fasciitis; Bunions and Hammertoes; Sports Related Injuries; Custom Orthotics; Fracture Care; Arthritis; Infections; Pediatric Conditions; Ingrown Nails; Flat Feet; Skin Disorders; Diabetic Foot Care; Wound Care; and Forefoot/Rearfoot Surgery.
Sports medicine surgical services, as the name suggests, are particularly focused on those injuries that relate back to sports or other types of athletic activities. Sports medicine specialty physicians operating in this field can not only help treat injuries with both surgical and non-surgical techniques, but they can also coordinate medical care within an athletic team environment, are comfortable working with other professionals like athletic trainers and physical therapists, etc. But overall, they are masters of the various types of principles and techniques that relate to rehabilitation in a way that allows an athlete to safely return to their sport of choice as quickly, as efficiently and as safely as humanly possible.
Pain Management Services
Pain management, pain medicine, pain control, is a branch of medicine employing an interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those living with chronic pain. The pain management team includes medical practitioners, pharmacists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, physician assistants, nurses. Pain sometimes resolves promptly once the underlying trauma or pathology has healed, and is treated by one practitioner, with drugs such as analgesics and (occasionally) anxiolytics. Effective management of chronic (long-term) pain, however, frequently requires the coordinated efforts which may include injections and/or implants.
Neurological-Spine - Minimally Invasive
Also sometimes referred to as MIS, minimally invasive neuro-spine surgery is typically conducted in an effort to stabilize both the vertebral bones and the spinal joints in a patient. It can also be an effective way to relieve pressure that is being applied to the nerves of the spine for whatever reason, most commonly as the result of conditions like bone spurs, herniated discs, spinal tumors and others.
Also commonly referred to as genitourinary surgery, urology surgical services are particularly focused on diseases and conditions that affect the male and female urinary-tract system, as well as the reproductive organs in males. Just a few of the organs that fall under the category of urology include the kidneys, the adrenal glands, the urethra, the urinary bladder and more.
At its core, plastic surgery is the process of either reconstructing or repairing certain parts of the body. This is usually achieved through the transfer of tissue, either in an effort to treat a particular injury that a person has sustained (like a severe burn) or for other reasons that are more cosmetic in nature.
Last but not least we have general surgery, a particular type of surgical specialty that is focused on the contents of one's abdominal region. Any surgery or related technique that focuses on the esophagus, the stomach, the small bowel, the colon, the liver or other organs in this area would fall under this larger umbrella term.